|name of |
|original source ||risky foods ||time to develop ||symptoms|
|soil ||cooked rice and pasta; meat products; vegetables ||15 hours ||nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea|
|This is a soil organism and spore-former. It produces toxins in food that is chilled too slowly.|
One toxin causes nausea and vomiting within 1-5 hours, the other causes diarrhoea within 8-16 hours.
|Campylobacter jejuni ||raw meat and poultry ||undercooked meat and poultry; raw milk and cross-contaminated food ||35 days of eating infected food ||fever, severe pain and diarrhoea|
|A very common cause of food poisoning. It colonises the intestine wall producing enterotoxins.|
|soil ||faulty processed canned meat and vegetables; cured meat and raw fish. ||17 days ||affects vision, causes paralysis and can be fatal|
|This is an anaerobic, spore forming soil organism. It produces a powerful neurotoxin in food which is absorbed into the bloodstream through the gut wall.Cases are very rare.|
|the environment ||large joints of meat; reheated gravies ||8-24 hours ||nausea, pain and diarrhoea|
|An anaerobic sporeformer found widely in the environment. A common cause of food poisoning though illness is not usually serious. |
Spores survive cooking and multiply if the food is inadequately chilled. They produce a toxin in the gut. Millions of cells must be eaten to cause infection.
|the gut of all humans and animals ||contaminated water, milk, inadequately cooked meat, cross-contaminated foods ||3-4 |
|inflammation, sickness and diarrhoea|
|Some types cause short attacks of gastro-enteritis, invading the gut wall and causing inflammation, sickness and diarrhoea. E. coli O157:H7 is a very nasty strain. Ingesting a few cells of this bacterium causes fever, bloody diarrhoea and kidney damage. If affects the very old and young worst, and can be fatal.|
|everywhere ||soft cheeses, paté, pre-packed salad; cook-chill products ||varies ||fever, headache, septicaemia and meningitis|
|It is carried by most animals and humans without harm if they are healthy. These bacteria are cold-tolerant, although growth is slow below 5°C. When eaten it colonises the gut and then spreads to other parts of the body. |
It mostly affects the young, old and immuno-compromised, pregnant women and their babies.
|Salmonella ||gut of animals, birds and humans - spread by faeces into water and food ||poultry, eggs and raw egg products, vegetables ||6-48 hours ||diarrhoea, sickness and headaches|
|There are many types, most of which are human pathogens. It produces toxins in the gut wall, leading to illness.|
Bacteria can be excreted long after the symptoms have gone. Typhoid fever is a severe Salmonella infection.
|the skin and noses of animals and humans ||cured meat; milk products; unrefrigerated, handled foods ||2-6 hours ||vomiting, pain and sometimes diarrhoea|
|It is salt tolerant and produces a toxin as it grows in food. The illness is common but short-lived.|