Any fruit or vegetable containing fermentable carbohydrates can be used to produce alcoholic drinks.
Beer is made from cereals (usually barley, but sometimes wheat) by a complex process known as brewing.
Wine is made from fruit juice usually crushed grapes.
Cider is made from apples and perry from pears.
Yeast carries out the fermentation and other microbes contribute to the flavour and aroma of alcoholic drinks as they mature. Most drinks are pasteurised before they are packaged to prevent spoilage. The yeast residues may be recycled or used as food flavourings or supplements (yeast extract). Marmite is a by-product of beer manufacture.
Spirits like whisky and brandy are made by distilling alcoholic liquors.